Creswell's Evaluative Criteria

Creswell points out that in qualitative research to goal is to achieve, as best as possible, understanding -- what he describes as a deep knowledge of some social setting or phenomenon.  Striving for understanding requires spending extensive time in the field.

He believes that verification is critical to evaluating the quality of qualitative research.

He identifies eight procedures for verifying qualitative research findings and recommends that any research study employ at least two of these procedures:

In addition, Creswell believes Lincoln and Guba's criteria of trustworthiness, credibility and authenticity should be employed when evaluating qualiatative research.

Creswell (1998) applies the standard of verification in 5 traditions : Biography (p. 204-207); phenomenology (207-208); grounded theory (208-210); ethnography (210-213; and case study (213-215).


Creswell, JW. (1998). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design Choosing Among Five Traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Click here to return to Evaluative Criteria